The Quran describes the origin of the soul in the creation of humans. “So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit (ruh), fall down making obeisance to him” (15:29). Allah describes the “ruh” as coming from His Own Spirit. He commands creation to do obeisance, i.e. show great respect, to humanity.
Allah explains that He controls every soul’s existence. “And no soul can die but with Allah’s permission” (4:144). We pray to Allah to preserve our lives because He has the power to prevent any death.
The soul is not alone but is attached to two entities. “And every soul comes, with it a driver and a witness” (50:21). This may be connected to the idea that there are two angels recording the deeds of each person. Islam also teaches that each person has a shaytan, or devil, that inspires him or her to do evil.
Allah teaches us that He will hold us accountable for our souls. “And whether you manifest what is in your souls or hide it, Allah will call you to account according to it.”
We may try to hide our sins, and this is a good thing, but we cannot hide them from Allah.
The soul often urges people to do wicked things. “Surely (man’s) self is wont to command evil, except those on whom my Lord has mercy” (12:53). If we do good, it is the product of Allah’s mercy upon us and not something we have earned ourselves.
“He has succeeded who purifies [his soul.] And he has failed who has corrupted it.” (91:9-10).
The highest stage of development of the soul brings it lasting peace. “O soul that art at rest, return to thy Lord, well- pleased, well-pleasing, So enter among My servants, And enter My Garden!” (89:27-30).